My Online Readings Follow me on Facebook Follow me on Linkedin Back to Home Follow me on Twitter

Key Facts about Swine Influenza (Swine Flu)

Posted in

Swine Flu

What is Swine Influenza? Swine Influenza (swine flu) is a respiratory disease of pigs caused by type A influenza virus that regularly causes outbreaks of influenza in pigs. Swine flu viruses cause high levels of illness and low death rates in pigs. Swine influenza viruses may circulate among swine throughout the year, but most outbreaks occur during the late fall and winter months similar to outbreaks in humans. The classical swine flu virus (an influenza type A H1N1 virus) was first isolated from a pig in 1930.

How many swine flu viruses are there? Like all influenza viruses, swine flu viruses change constantly. Pigs can be infected by avian influenza and human influenza viruses as well as swine influenza viruses. When influenza viruses from different species infect pigs, the viruses can reassort (i.e. swap genes) and new viruses that are a mix of swine, human and/or avian influenza viruses can emerge. Over the years, different variations of swine flu viruses have emerged. At this time, there are four main influenza type A virus subtypes that have been isolated in pigs: H1N1, H1N2, H3N2, and H3N1. However, most of the recently isolated influenza viruses from pigs have been H1N1 viruses.

Swine Flu in Humans

Can humans catch swine flu? Swine flu viruses do not normally infect humans. However, sporadic human infections with swine flu have occurred. Most commonly, these cases occur in persons with direct exposure to pigs (e.g. children near pigs at a fair or workers in the swine industry). In addition, there have been documented cases of one person spreading swine flu to others. For example, an outbreak of apparent swine flu infection in pigs in Wisconsin in 1988 resulted in multiple human infections, and, although no community outbreak resulted, there was antibody evidence of virus transmission from the patient to health care workers who had close contact with the patient.

How common is swine flu infection in humans? In the past, CDC received reports of approximately one human swine influenza virus infection every one to two years in the U.S., but from December 2005 through February 2009, 12 cases of human infection with swine influenza have been reported.

What are the symptoms of swine flu in humans? The symptoms of swine flu in people are expected to be similar to the symptoms of regular human seasonal influenza and include fever, lethargy, lack of appetite and coughing. Some people with swine flu also have reported runny nose, sore throat, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea.

Can people catch swine flu from eating pork? No. Swine influenza viruses are not transmitted by food. You can not get swine influenza from eating pork or pork products. Eating properly handled and cooked pork and pork products is safe. Cooking pork to an internal temperature of 160°F kills the swine flu virus as it does other bacteria and viruses.

How does swine flu spread? Influenza viruses can be directly transmitted from pigs to people and from people to pigs. Human infection with flu viruses from pigs are most likely to occur when people are in close proximity to infected pigs, such as in pig barns and livestock exhibits housing pigs at fairs. Human-to-human transmission of swine flu can also occur. This is thought to occur in the same way as seasonal flu occurs in people, which is mainly person-to-person transmission through coughing or sneezing of people infected with the influenza virus. People may become infected by touching something with flu viruses on it and then touching their mouth or nose.

What do we know about human-to-human spread of swine flu? In September 1988, a previously healthy 32-year-old pregnant woman was hospitalized for pneumonia and died 8 days later. A swine H1N1 flu virus was detected. Four days before getting sick, the patient visited a county fair swine exhibition where there was widespread influenza-like illness among the swine.

In follow-up studies, 76% of swine exhibitors tested had antibody evidence of swine flu infection but no serious illnesses were detected among this group. Additional studies suggest that one to three health care personnel who had contact with the patient developed mild influenza-like illnesses with antibody evidence of swine flu infection.

How can human infections with swine influenza be diagnosed? To diagnose swine influenza A infection, a respiratory specimen would generally need to be collected within the first 4 to 5 days of illness (when an infected person is most likely to be shedding virus). However, some persons, especially children, may shed virus for 10 days or longer. Identification as a swine flu influenza A virus requires sending the specimen to CDC for laboratory testing.

What medications are available to treat swine flu infections in humans? There are four different antiviral drugs that are licensed for use in the US for the treatment of influenza: amantadine, rimantadine, oseltamivir and zanamivir. While most swine influenza viruses have been susceptible to all four drugs, the most recent swine influenza viruses isolated from humans are resistant to amantadine and rimantadine. At this time, CDC recommends the use of oseltamivir or zanamivir for the treatment and/or prevention of infection with swine influenza viruses.

What other examples of swine flu outbreaks are there? Probably the most well known is an outbreak of swine flu among soldiers in Fort Dix, New Jersey in 1976. The virus caused disease with x-ray evidence of pneumonia in at least 4 soldiers and 1 death; all of these patients had previously been healthy. The virus was transmitted to close contacts in a basic training environment, with limited transmission outside the basic training group. The virus is thought to have circulated for a month and disappeared. The source of the virus, the exact time of its introduction into Fort Dix, and factors limiting its spread and duration are unknown. The Fort Dix outbreak may have been caused by introduction of an animal virus into a stressed human population in close contact in crowded facilities during the winter. The swine influenza A virus collected from a Fort Dix soldier was named A/New Jersey/76 (Hsw1N1).

Is the H1N1 swine flu virus the same as human H1N1 viruses? No. The H1N1 swine flu viruses are antigenically very different from human H1N1 viruses and, therefore, vaccines for human seasonal flu would not provide protection from H1N1 swine flu viruses.

Swine Flu in Pigs

How does swine flu spread among pigs? Swine flu viruses are thought to be spread mostly through close contact among pigs and possibly from contaminated objects moving between infected and uninfected pigs. Herds with continuous swine flu infections and herds that are vaccinated against swine flu may have sporadic disease, or may show only mild or no symptoms of infection.

What are signs of swine flu in pigs? Signs of swine flu in pigs can include sudden onset of fever, depression, coughing (barking), discharge from the nose or eyes, sneezing, breathing difficulties, eye redness or inflammation, and going off feed.

How common is swine flu among pigs? H1N1 and H3N2 swine flu viruses are endemic among pig populations in the United States and something that the industry deals with routinely. Outbreaks among pigs normally occur in colder weather months (late fall and winter) and sometimes with the introduction of new pigs into susceptible herds. Studies have shown that the swine flu H1N1 is common throughout pig populations worldwide, with 25 percent of animals showing antibody evidence of infection. In the U.S. studies have shown that 30 percent of the pig population has antibody evidence of having had H1N1 infection. More specifically, 51 percent of pigs in the north-central U.S. have been shown to have antibody evidence of infection with swine H1N1. Human infections with swine flu H1N1 viruses are rare. There is currently no way to differentiate antibody produced in response to flu vaccination in pigs from antibody made in response to pig infections with swine H1N1 influenza.

While H1N1 swine viruses have been known to circulate among pig populations since at least 1930, H3N2 influenza viruses did not begin circulating among US pigs until 1998. The H3N2 viruses initially were introduced into the pig population from humans. The current swine flu H3N2 viruses are closely related to human H3N2 viruses.

Is there a vaccine for swine flu? Vaccines are available to be given to pigs to prevent swine influenza. There is no vaccine to protect humans from swine flu. The seasonal influenza vaccine will likely help provide partial protection against swine H3N2, but not swine H1N1 viruses.

Apakah Kategori Otak Anda? Dah Korup atau Belum?

Posted in

Ketika aku berkeliaran di blog kawan2 ku, aku akhirnya singgah di blog Archeaqalogy setelah sekian lama tak ke situ. Dan aku telah jumpa satu gambar yg menarik. Jadi, persoalannya. Apakah yang anda dapat lihat dalam gambar di atas? Sila tinggalkan komen dengan sejujurnye ya. Huhu...

Filem Yasmin Ahmad, Talentime..Apa dah jadi? (yoyooh.com)

Posted in

Talentime, filem Yasmin yang mendapat pujian ramai terutama dari blogger-blogger filem, termasuk blog kecil ini, tidak berjaya mendapat sambutan yang menggalakkan dari penonton. Ini dapat dilihat dari hasil jualan tiket yang hanya disekitar (atau tidak sampai) Rm 500 ribu setakat yang aku tahu.

Apa yang menyebabkan perkara ini terjadi?

Mengikut survey yang aku lakukan terhadap beberapa penonton Melayu secara rawak, aku mendapat respon ini.

1. Talentime adalah kembar Sepet dan Gubra. Kebanyakan penonton tidak mahu melihat cerita yang seakan sama berulang kali. Mereka mengambil keputusan untuk menanti kemunculan Talentime di dalam bentuk DVD haram.

2. Harith Iskandar dan Adibah Nor. Mereak tidak mahu menonton pelakon yang sama dan membawa watak yang hampir sama berulang kali. Oleh itu, mereka mengambil keputusan untuk menantikan kemunculan Talentime di dalam bentuk DVD haram.

3. Strategi promosi yang mengelirukan. Trailer Talentime di TV disalah tafsir sebagai satu iklan/komersil produk kecantikan. Ini kerana sangkaan mereka Talentime di sini merupakan jenama bedak terbaru dari Silky Girl dan bukannya sebuah filem.

4. Talentime adalah satu tajuk filem di dalam perkataan bahasa inggeris. Majoriti penonton yang menggunakan 100 peratus komunikasi di dalam bahasa Melayu sehari-hari tersalah sangka bahwa filem ini merupakan filem orang putih . Sekiranya tajuk filem ini ditukar kepada ' Malam Pesta Muda Mudi' kemungkinan besar sambutan terhadap filem ini akan berbeza.

5. Trailer yang menggelirukan bagi sebuah filem Melayu kerana 'lagu' orang putih yang dinyanyikan oleh Hafiz. Ini menyebabkan penonton menyangkakan filem ini di dalam bahasa Inggeris.

6. Lagu Urdu sewaktu trailer, (apa ntah nama tajuknya itu...Ore Piya...kalau tidak silap) telah mengelirukan lagi identiti filem ini. Kekeliruan dan ketidak jelasan penonton terhadap filem ini telah mengakibatkan mereka tidak berminat mengambil risiko kehilangan Rm8-12 secara sia-sia.

7. Hero dan heroin yang tidak dikenali.

Ini adalah antara jawapan yang diterima dari survey yang aku lakukan. Mungkin ada blogger lain yang mempunyai pandangan kritis mereka sendiri tentang hal ini.

Apapun penonton telah bersuara...

More on:

yoyooh.com

Lagi-lagi Filem

Kuala Lumpur International Bookfair 2009

Posted in

It was on 18th April. Aku baru je lepas habis exam pada hari tersebut. Malamnye, best friend ku Yassin datang dari UIAM Kuantan. Dia ni student Majoring Biomarine. So kami sembang2 habis2an pada malam itu...

Kesimpulannya:

1. Dia sekarang dah ade awek baru. Feewit... Seperti biasa, syarat2 awek yg dia suka, awek tu mesti lagi tinggi dari dia. haha... Adoyai...

2. Dia dah ade diving licence. Bukan driving ye.. DIVING. huhu... Mak aih... Bangga betol dia ade diving licence. Sekarang Yassin officially boleh dikira penyelam berlesen diiktiraf diserata dunia.

3. Dia dah terbitkan buku keduanye yang bertajuk "Hantu Lagenda".

Novel Remaja kedua beliau, "Hantu Legenda"

Novel Remaja pertama beliau, "Istana Tinggalan"

So pada keesokan harinya aku pegi ke PWTC untuk mencari buku tersebut disamping meluangkan masa bersama Coklat. Thanx Coklat kerana sudi teman... ^^

Coklat membeli sebuah novel tebal yang membosankan (katanya....hahaha). Aku tak ingat tajuk dia ape... Dan aku rasa novel nipis ini lebih menarik untuk dibaca. hohoho... Nanti aku da habis baca novel nie, aku tulis review nye pulok.

Kalau korg nak membeli buku secara banyak, sila lah datang ke Book Fair ini. Ade diskaun dari 10 - 15 %, disamping dapat berjumpa dengan beberapa artis terkenal jika anda bertuah. (walaupon aku tak kenal) Nak jalan2 disamping mencari awek yang suka membaca pon boleh. Hahaha...

Rakan2ku yang menulis:

Yassin Rahmat

Zamri Mohamad

Mohd Aliff Mohd Nor

Syarafuddin Sulaiman

P/S:

Yassin! Kau kena upah aku sebab aku tolong promotekan novel kau. hahahahahahaaha!

Competition oh Competition!

Posted in
Actually, there are two things in my mind that I want to participate. Alhamdulillah. Rezeki murah. Banyak jugak offer-offer berfaedah yang aku dapat buat selain dari ambik short semester and belajar hari2 pegi kelas kat HS yang membosankan tu. Hahahah... Sabo je la ko Jai...

So, this is it. Aku dah decide aku nak masuk 3rd National Level Internship Challenge 2009 organized by Jobmarket Malaysia

The 1st Internship Challenge telah dimenangi oleh team UIA. Szakif was part of the team. TAhniah Szakif! Sila beri tunjuk ajar pada kami pulak! Aku pon nak memang dan mengharumkan nama UIA gak! Aku perlukan sokongan padu dari semua! HAIT! GANBATE JAI!